November 18, 2022ADHD brains exhibit unique differences in the expression of genes used to code neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers that power attention and communication, among other brain functions. This is the finding of a new study conducted by researchers at the National Institute of Health (NIH) that uncovered a key difference in gene activity in the brains of individuals diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).1The study, led by scientists at the NIH’s National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and published in Molecular Psychiatry, shed light on the ways in which genomic differences may contribute to ADHD symptoms.Using postmortem brain tissue for the first time to investigate ADHD, researchers gathered gene-level information to explore the influence of genes on cell function and symptoms.
Investigating gene expression through RNA sequencing, the scientists studied the caudate and frontal cortex of the brain, two connected regions that are crucial in attentional control and management. Differences in the activity and structure of these regions of the brain in individuals with ADHD have been established through previous research.Gustavo Sudre, Ph.D., associate investigator in the Social and Behavioral Research Branch in NHGRI’s Intramural Research Program, who led this study, noted that multiple studies point toward the expression of the same genes in individuals with ADHD and other neurological conditions.
“Interestingly, these gene-expression differences were similar to those seen in other conditions,” he said. “Which may reflect differences in how the brain functions, such as in autism.”The study marks an important advancement in ADHD research.
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